Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2024
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  



Interim Unaudited Financial Information


The accompanying interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 28, 2024. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been omitted from this report on Form 10-Q pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC.


Results for the interim periods in this report are not necessarily indicative of future financial results and have not been audited by our independent registered public accounting firm. In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include all adjustments necessary to present fairly our interim consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2024, and for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. These adjustments are of a normal recurring nature and consistent with the adjustments recorded to prepare the annual audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2023.


Basis of Presentation


The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary. All intercompany accounts, transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.


As discussed in Note 9, the Company completed a reverse 1 for 45 stock split on February 2, 2024, all share and per share amounts have been adjusted to reflect the impact of these reverse stock splits.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of any contingent assets and liabilities as of the dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting periods.


Making estimates requires management to exercise judgment. It is at least reasonably possible that the estimate of the effect of a condition, situation or set of circumstances that existed at the date of the financial statements, which management considered in formulating its estimate, could change in the near term due to one or more future confirming events. Accordingly, actual results could differ significantly from those estimates.


Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash


Cash and cash equivalents include short-term investments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase. The recorded value of our cash and cash equivalents approximates their fair value. There were no cash equivalents as of March 31, 2024 or December 31, 2023. Restricted cash includes cash restricted as collateral for the Company’s corporate credit cards and a letter of credit with the Company’s bank.


Revenue Recognition


For sales to dealers or distributors, revenue is recognized when transfer of control of the product is made as there is no acceptance period or right of return. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring control of vehicles, parts, and accessories. Beginning in February 2023 the Company began selling the Brat E-Bike and Volcon Youth motorcycles directly to consumers in addition to dealers. Revenue for direct to consumer sales is recognized when transfer of control of the product is made to the consumer.


Consideration that is received in advance of the transfer of goods is recorded as customer deposits until delivery has occurred or the customer cancels their order, and the consideration is returned to the customer. Sales and other taxes the Company collects concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue. The Company’s sales do not presently have a financing component.


Sales promotions and incentives. The Company provides for estimated sales promotions and incentives, which are recognized as a component of sales in measuring the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. Examples of sales promotion and incentive programs include rebates, distributor fees, dealer co-op advertising and volume incentives. Sales promotions and incentives are estimated based on contractual requirements. The Company records these amounts as a liability in the balance sheet until they are ultimately paid. Adjustments to sales promotions and incentives accruals are made as actual usage becomes known to properly estimate the amounts necessary to generate consumer demand based on market conditions as of the balance sheet date.


Shipping and handling charges and costs. The Company records shipping and handling amounts charged to the customer and related shipping costs as a component of cost of goods sold when control has transferred to the customer.


Product Warranties


The Company provides a one-year warranty on vehicles, and a two-year warranty on the battery pack. The Company accrues warranty reserves at the time revenue is recognized. Warranty reserves include the Company’s best estimate of the projected cost to repair or to replace any items under warranty, based on actual warranty experience as it becomes available and other known factors that may impact the evaluation of historical data. The Company reviews its reserves quarterly to ensure that the accruals are adequate to meet expected future warranty obligations and will adjust estimates as needed. Factors that could have an impact on the warranty reserve include the following: changes in manufacturing quality, shifts in product mix, changes in warranty coverage periods, product recalls and changes in sales volume. Warranty expense is recorded as a component of cost of goods sold in the statement of operations and is recognized as a current liability.


Inventory and Inventory Deposits


Inventories and prepaid inventory deposits are stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value.


Certain vendors require the Company to pay an upfront deposit before they manufacture and ship the Company’s parts or accessories. These payments are classified as prepaid inventory deposits on the balance sheet until title and risk of loss transfers to the Company, at which time they are classified as inventory.


Raw materials inventory costs include the cost of parts, including duties, tariffs, and shipping. Work-in-process and finished goods include the cost of parts, labor and manufacturing overhead costs associated with the assembly of the vehicle. Finished goods also include accessories for the vehicle and branded merchandise such as hats and shirts.


Through August 2022 the Company assembled the Grunt motorcycle in a leased facility. The Company ceased assembly operations at the end of August and outsourced the assembly of the Grunt to a third party.


In May 2023, the Company transferred substantially all of its raw materials and work-in-process inventory for the Grunt to the third party manufacturer in the second quarter of 2023. Title to the inventory transferred to the third party manufacturer and the manufacturer provides the Company with a credit towards future purchases of the Grunt EVO.


Property and Equipment


Property and equipment are valued at cost. Additions are capitalized and maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. Gains and losses on dispositions of equipment are reflected in operations. Depreciation is recorded using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:

Category   Estimated
Useful Lives
Machinery, tooling and equipment   3-7 years
Vehicles   5 years
Internal use manufactured vehicles   1 year
Furniture & Fixtures   5 years
Computers   3 years


Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter period of their estimated useful life or term of the lease.


Long-Lived Assets


The Company’s long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the historical carrying cost value of an asset may no longer be appropriate. The Company assesses recoverability of the asset by comparing the undiscounted future net cash flows expected to result from the asset to the carrying value. If the carrying value exceeds the undiscounted future net cash flows of the asset, an impairment loss is measured and recognized. An impairment loss is measured as the difference between the net book value and the fair value of the long-lived asset.




Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the estimated present value of lease payments over the lease term. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet; the Company recognizes lease expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company does not separate non-lease components from the lease components to which they relate, and instead accounts for each separate lease and non-lease component associated with that lease component as a single lease component.


ASC 842 defines initial direct costs as only the incremental costs of signing a lease. Initial direct costs related to leasing that are not incremental are expensed as general and administrative expenses in our statements of operations.


The Company’s operating lease agreements primarily consist of leased real estate and are included within ROU assets – operating leases and ROU lease liabilities – operating leases on the balance sheets. The Company’s lease agreements may include options to extend the lease, which are not included in minimum lease payments unless they are reasonably certain to be exercised at lease commencement. The Company's leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments.


Research and Development Expenses


The Company records research and development expenses in the period in which they are incurred as a component of product development expenses.


Income Taxes


Deferred taxes are determined utilizing the “asset and liability” method, whereby deferred tax asset and liability account balances are determined based on the differences between financial reporting and the tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The Company provides a valuation allowance, when it’s more likely than not that deferred tax assets will not be realized in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are classified as current or non-current based on the underlying asset or liability or if not directly related to an asset or liability based on the expected reversal dates of the specific temporary differences.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


ASC Topic 820 Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (“ASC Topic 820”) provides a framework for measuring fair value in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.


ASC Topic 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. ASC Topic 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between (1) market participant assumptions developed based on market data obtained from independent sources (observable inputs) and (2) an entity’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions developed based on the best information available in the circumstances (unobservable inputs).


The fair value hierarchy consists of three broad levels, which gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under ASC Topic 820 are described as follows:


· Level 1 — Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that are accessible at the measurement date.
· Level 2 — Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 2 inputs include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active; inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability; and inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means.
· Level 3 — Inputs that are unobservable for the asset or liability.


The following section describes the valuation methodologies that the Company used to measure different financial instruments at fair value.




The fair value of the Company’s debt approximated the carrying value of the Company’s debt as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. Factors that the Company considered when estimating the fair value of its debt included market conditions, and term of the debt. The level of the debt would be considered as Level 2.


The Company relies on the guidance provided by ASC Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, to classify certain convertible instruments. The Company first determines whether a financial instrument should be classified as a liability. The Company will determine the liability classification if the financial instrument is mandatorily redeemable, or if the financial instrument, other than outstanding shares, embodies a conditional obligation that the Company must or may settle by issuing a variable number of its equity shares.


The Company accounts for derivative instruments in accordance with ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC Topic 815”), and all derivative instruments are reflected as either assets or liabilities at fair value on the consolidated balance sheets. The Company uses estimates of fair value to value its derivative instruments. Fair value is defined as the price to sell an asset or transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between able and willing market participants. In general, the Company’s policy in estimating fair values is to first look at observable market prices for identical assets and liabilities in active markets, where available. When these are not available, other inputs are used to model fair value such as prices of similar instruments, yield curves, volatilities, prepayment speeds, default rates and credit spreads, relying first on observable data from active markets. Depending on the availability of observable inputs and prices, different valuation models could produce materially different fair value estimates. The values presented may not represent future fair values and may not be realizable. The Company categorizes its fair value estimates in accordance with ASC Topic 820, based on the hierarchical framework associated with the three levels or price transparency utilized in measuring financial instruments at fair value as discussed above.


Once the Company determines that a financial instrument should not be classified as a liability, the Company determines whether the financial instrument should be presented between the liability section and the equity section of the balance sheet (“temporary equity”). The Company will determine temporary equity classification if the redemption of the financial instrument is outside the control of the Company (i.e., at the option of the holder). Otherwise, the Company accounts for the financial instrument as permanent equity.


Initial Measurement


The Company records its financial instruments classified as a liability, temporary equity or permanent equity at issuance at fair value, or cash received.


Subsequent Measurement - Financial instruments classified as liabilities


The Company records the fair value of its financial instruments classified as liabilities at each subsequent measurement date. The changes in fair value of its financial instruments classified as liabilities are recorded as other expense/income. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to determine the fair value of derivatives for instruments with embedded conversion features and for free standing warrants as discussed further in Note 7.


Additional Disclosures Regarding Fair Value Measurements


The carrying value of cash, accounts receivable, inventory, other assets, and accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturity of those items.


Warrant Liabilities and Convertible Liabilities


The fair value of the derivative liabilities and warrant liabilities is classified as Level 3 within the Company’s fair value hierarchy. Refer to Note 7, Derivative Instruments, for further discussion of the measurement of fair value of the derivatives and their underlying assumptions.


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company has a stock-based incentive award plan for employees, consultants and directors. The Company measures stock-based compensation at the estimated fair value on the grant date and recognizes the amortization of stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, or when it is probable criteria will be achieved for performance-based awards. Fair value is determined based on assumptions related to the fair value of the Company common stock, stock volatility and risk-free rate of return. The Company has elected to recognize forfeitures when realized.


Concentration Risk


The Company outsources certain portions of product design and development for its vehicles to third parties. In addition, the Company has outsourced the manufacturing of all of its vehicles to third party manufacturers, including one manufacturer for two of its vehicles, the Stag and Grunt EVO, and this third party is also performing product design and development services on the Stag.


One supplier provides the battery and drivetrain components for the Company’s utility terrain vehicle, the Stag. The components are critical to the operation of the Stag. The Company also sources some of the other components from third party suppliers and the third party manufacturer sources other components from third party suppliers or fabricates them from materials sourced from third parties.


On January 8, 2024, the Company notified the manufacturer of the Volcon Youth motorcycles that it was terminating the co-branding and distribution agreement with them due to lower than anticipated sales of these units. In March 2024, the Company agreed to allow the manufacturer to keep all fully paid for units manufactured and held by the manufacturer and pay cash of $2,070,000 which includes a payment of $370,000 in March 2024 and $100,000 monthly for seventeen months starting April 2024. The settlement was recorded in the financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023. The balance of the liability as of March 31, 2024 is $1,600,000. As discussed below, the Company has written down this inventory to its estimated net realizable value.


Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements


From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standard Board or other standard setting bodies that the Company adopts as of the specified effective date. The Company does not believe that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will have a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations upon adoption.