SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The significant accounting policies followed in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements are as follows:
Basis of presentation
The basis of accounting applied is the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP). The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary. All intercompany accounts, transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
On July 27, 2021, the board of directors approved a common stock dividend of 1.5 shares for each share of common stock. The Company has accounted for this as a stock split since all common stock shares, warrants, options and restricted stock unit amounts and common stock per share amounts have been adjusted for this stock dividend. All periods presented have been adjusted to reflect this stock dividend. As a result of the stock dividend, Series A and Series B preferred stock converted at a ratio of 2.5 common shares for each preferred share outstanding upon completion of the Company’s initial public offering completed in October 2021.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States
(“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of any contingent assets and liabilities as of the dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting periods.
Making estimates requires management to exercise judgment. It is at least reasonably possible that the estimate of the effect of a condition, situation or set of circumstances that existed at the date of the financial statements, which management considered in formulating its estimate, could change in the near term due to one or more future confirming events. Accordingly, actual results could differ significantly from those estimates.
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
Cash and cash equivalents include short-term investments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase. The recorded value of our cash and cash equivalents approximates their fair value. Restricted cash includes cash equivalents restricted as collateral for the Company’s corporate credit cards and a letter of credit with the Company’s bank.
For sales of Grunts directly to consumers, revenue was recognized when the Company transfers control of the product to the customer and the 14-day acceptance period has expired, or earlier acceptance was received from the customer. All direct to consumer Grunt sales were completed by June 30, 2022. For sales to dealers or distributors revenue is recognized when transfer of control of the product is made. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring control of vehicles, parts, and accessories. Consideration that is received in advance of the transfer of goods is recorded as customer deposits until delivery has occurred or the customer cancels their order and the consideration is returned to the customer. Sales and other taxes the Company collects concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue. If a right of return exists, the Company adjusts revenue for the estimated effect of returns. Until the Company develops sales history, it will estimate expected returns based on industry data for sales returns as a percent of sales, type of product, and a projection of this experience into the future. The Company’s sales do not have a financing component.
Sales promotions and incentives. The Company provides for estimated sales promotions and incentives, which are recognized as a component of sales in measuring the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. Examples of sales promotion and incentive programs include distributor fees, rebates, dealer co-op advertising and volume incentives. Sales promotions and incentives are estimated based on contractual requirements. The Company records these amounts as a liability in the balance sheet until they are ultimately paid. Adjustments to sales promotions and incentives accruals are made as actual usage becomes known to properly estimate the amounts necessary to generate consumer demand based on market conditions as of the balance sheet date.
Shipping and handling charges and costs. The Company records shipping and handling charged to the customer and related shipping costs as a component of cost of sales when control has transferred to the customer.
The Company provides a one-year warranty on motorcycles and eBikes, and a two-year warranty on the battery pack. The Company accrues warranty reserves at the time revenue is recognized. Warranty reserves include the Company’s best estimate of the projected cost to repair or to replace any items under warranty, based on actual warranty experience as it becomes available and other known factors that may impact the evaluation of historical data. The Company reviews its reserves quarterly to ensure that the accruals are
adequate to meet expected future warranty obligations and will adjust estimates as needed. Factors that could have an impact on the warranty reserve include the following: changes in manufacturing quality, shifts in product mix, changes in warranty coverage periods, product recalls and changes in sales volume. Warranty expense is recorded as a component of cost of goods sold in the statement of operations and is recognized as a current liability.
Inventory and Inventory Deposits
Inventories and prepaid inventory deposits are stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value.
Certain vendors require the Company to pay an upfront deposit before they will manufacture and ship our parts or accessories. These payments are classified as prepaid inventory deposits on the balance sheet until title and risk of loss transfers to the Company, at which time they are classified as inventory.
Raw materials inventory costs include the cost of parts, including duties, tariffs and shipping. Work in process and finished goods include the cost of parts, labor and manufacturing overhead costs associated with the assembly of the vehicle. Finished goods also include accessories for the vehicle and branded merchandise such as hats and shirts.
Through August 2022 the Company assembled the Grunt motorcycle in a leased facility. The Company ceased assembly operations at the end of August and outsourced the assembly of the Grunt to a third-party. As of December 31, 2022, the Company is in the process of transferring its raw materials and work in process inventory for the Grunt to the third-party manufacturer. This manufacturer will take title to the inventory and provide the Company with a credit towards future purchases of finished goods once it begins production. The Company has adjusted the value of these inventories to the amount of the credit the third-party manufacturer has agreed to give the Company for future manufacturing of the Company’s vehicles.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are valued at cost. Additions are capitalized and maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. Gains and losses on dispositions of equipment are reflected in operations. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter period of their estimated useful life or term of the lease.
The Company’s long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the historical carrying cost value of an asset may no longer be appropriate. The Company assesses recoverability of the asset by comparing the undiscounted future net cash flows expected to result from the asset to the carrying value. If the carrying value exceeds the undiscounted future net cash flows of the asset, an impairment loss is measured and recognized. An impairment loss is measured as the difference between the net book value and the fair value of the long-lived asset.
Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the estimated present value of lease payments over the lease term. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet; the Company recognizes lease expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company does not separate non-lease components from the lease components to which they relate, and instead accounts for each separate lease and non-lease component associated with that lease component as a single lease component.
ASC 842 defines initial direct costs as only the incremental costs of signing a lease. Initial direct costs related to leasing that are not incremental are expensed as general and administrative expense in our statements of operations.
The Company’s operating lease agreements primarily consist of leased real estate and are included within ROU assets – operating leases and ROU lease liabilities – operating leases on the balance sheets. The Company’s lease agreements may include options to extend the lease, which are not included in minimum lease payments unless they are reasonably certain to be exercised at lease commencement. The Company's leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments.
Research and development expenses
The Company records research and development expenses in the period in which they are incurred as a component of product development expenses.
Deferred taxes are determined utilizing the "asset and liability" method, whereby deferred tax asset and liability account balances are determined based on the differences between financial reporting and the tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The Company provides a valuation allowance, when it's more likely than not that deferred tax assets will not be realized in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are classified as current or non-current based on the underlying asset or liability or if not directly related to an asset or liability based on the expected reversal dates of the specific temporary differences.
Fair value of financial instruments
The Company discloses fair value measurements for financial and non-financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value. Fair value is based on the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
The accounting standard establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes observable and unobservable inputs used to measure fair value into three broad levels, which are described below:
Level 1: Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for assets or liabilities. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to Level 1 inputs.
Level 2: Observable prices that are based on inputs not quoted on active markets but are corroborated by market data.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs are used when little or no market data is available. The fair value hierarchy gives the lowest priority to Level 3 inputs.
The Company has a stock-based incentive award plan for employees, consultants and directors. The Company measures stock-based compensation at the estimated fair value on the grant date and recognizes the amortization of stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, or when it is probable criteria will be achieved for performance-based awards. Fair value is determined based on assumptions related to the fair value of the Company common stock, stock volatility and risk-free rate of return. The Company has elected to recognize forfeitures when realized.
The Company outsources certain portions of product design and development for its vehicles to third parties. In addition, the Company has outsourced the manufacturing of all of its vehicles to third-party manufacturers, including one manufacturer for three of its vehicles and this third-party is also performing product design and development services on these vehicles.
One supplier provides the battery and drivetrain components for the Company’s utility terrain vehicle, the Stag. The components are critical to the operation of the Stag.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging— Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06”). The amendments in ASU 2020-06 simplify the accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity, including convertible instruments and contracts on an entity’s own equity. Under ASU 2020-06, embedded conversion features are no longer separately reported in equity and convertible debt instruments are now accounted for as a single liability measured at amortized cost, as long as no other features require bifurcation and recognition as derivatives. These changes will reduce reported interest expense and increase reported net income for entities with convertible instruments that were bifurcated between liabilities and equity under previously existing guidance. Additionally, temporary differences between the book and tax bases resulting from the bifurcation of the embedded conversion feature under previously existing guidance have been eliminated and deferred tax assets and liabilities arising from such temporary differences will no longer be reported. The new guidance also requires the if-converted method to be used in diluted earnings per share computations for all convertible instruments and revised the if-converted method to preclude the addback of interest expense to the numerator if the principal portions of the convertible instruments are required to be settled in cash. The standard is effective for public companies for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2021. Until the issuance of the Convertible Notes as discussed in Note 6, ASU 2020-06 did not affect the Company as the Company did not have any instruments outstanding that would be affected by ASU 202-06. The Company adopted ASU No. 2020-06 effective with the issuance of the Convertible Notes. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 does not impact the Company’s liquidity or cash flows.
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standard Board or other standard setting bodies that the Company adopts as of the specified effective date. The Company does not believe that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will have a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations upon adoption.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef